Return to Content 10 practical tips for writing better exam essays The key words in the title are practical and exam.
However, they are all variations of three kinds of conclusions: Grammar school and high school teachers often insist on the summary conclusion because it demonstrates an ability to encapsulate your writing concisely by reducing it to its main points.
In college composition, though, where the topics are more complex and your writing is, likewise, more sophisticated, other methods of conclusion can bring to bear your individual voice, your creativity, even your politics, without violating the essay's topic.
Conclusions are, for the most part, rhetorical: They leave the reader feeling as though an essay is rounded off, polished, balanced and symmetrical.
Why readers demand this effect is up for debate, but here are some ways to think about that polish: How an Idea is "Told" As in paragraph development, sequencing provides a "flow" of ideas and a coherent pattern of development to an essay.
However, whether that sequencing is chronological, spatial or emphatic, it still approximates a narrative thread--only with ideas instead of story events and characters--and readers like their essays to appear to have a narrative structure just like a good story. The satisfaction that comes from a good ending to a story is created by a sense of balance, symmetry and resolution.
In essay writing, a good conclusion creates for the reader the feeling that resolution has been achieved, and resolution provides a sense of balance to the essay's "narrative. How an Idea Is Types of introductions and conclusions for essays Essays follow a pattern of organization that structures the development of ideas, both for the writer and the reader.
Regardless of the mode of that pattern process analysis; comparison-contrast; classification-division; descriptive-narrative; etc. Because readers look for symmetry, they enjoy one or more paragraphs at the back end of the essay--the other "bookend" to give the essay's structure its harmonious balance.
Here's another analogy to help put this idea into perspective: If we think of essays as documentary films, and introductions as the camera "zooming in" to a topic from the general to the specific, then conclusions are the camera "zooming out" again.
How an Idea Relates to Others Unless you are assigned to write a broad survey or overview of a subject in the style of an encyclopedic article, most likely your essay will focus on a specific topic. A topic, however, is selected from a range of topics that fall under the heading of a subject.
Another way to express balance and resolution in a conclusion is by demonstrating to the reader how your topic relates to others: If the introduction invites readers to focus their view narrowly on a single issue or topic, then the conclusion invites them to broaden their view and take in the bigger picture again.
This could mean relating your essay's topic back to the subject, or it could mean connecting it to another topic that is related by subject. The satisfaction of such a conclusion comes from feeling that a single idea is balanced against others, and that the world of ideas in the essay is balanced with the world of ideas outside of it.
Here is a sample introduction on the topic of voters ages 18 to In the sample conclusions that will follow, take note of how the key features of the introduction are used differently to create different effects of balance and resolution. Democracy is an extraordinary experiment in government by the people for the people.
The right to vote grants to every adult the privilege to add a unique voice to that system of self-government. While most adults understand the value of this privilege, young people under the age of twenty-one continue to demonstrate the poorest understanding of political process and, consequently, are greatly underrepresented at the polls on election day.
A greater appreciation of how the political process ideally works, and of how younger voters may add to the diversity of government by the people, might begin with following a few important steps to become a better, more informed voter.
Effectively writing different types of essays has become critical to academic success. Essay writing is a common school assignment, a part of standardized tests, and a requirement on college applications. Palgrave Study Guides A Handbook of Writing for Engineers Joan van Emden Effective Communication for Science and TechnologyJoan van Emden How to Write Better Essays Bryan Greetham Key Concepts in Politics Andrew Heywood Linguistic Terms and Concepts Geoffrey Finch Literary Terms and Criticism (second edition)John Peck and . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
Education, awareness, and active participation are all key to this process. As a paraphrase of the thesis and a summary of main points covered in the body of the essay, this method of conclusion is appropriate for longer essays where readers might find such a reminder useful.
Furthermore, because the point of this type of conclusion is strictly to summarize the main arguments of the essay, it should contain no reflexive references "I feel," "in my opinion," etc. Example of a Summary Conclusion: The right to vote is, indeed, a sacred privilege adding unique voices to a system of self-government.
With a process of better education, improved political awareness, and more active political participation, young people under the age of twenty-one will have their own diverse and strong voices heard in elections, contributing their energies to social change and forging their own futures.
Example of an Editorial Conclusion: I fear that, with a growing cynicism among young voters, a decision not to vote may seem like a means to making a disenchanted voice heard. This, however, is far from the reality.Introductions and conclusions play a special role in the academic essay, and they frequently demand much of your attention as a writer.
A good introduction should identify your topic, provide essential context, and indicate your particular focus in the essay. Effective for essays that focus on single issues part of broader complex topics and essays with potential for frequent digressions Perfect for short essays and longer essays, alike, a conclusion with a transition to an external, but relevant, topic can leave readers thinking in a new direction.
English Composition 1 Introductions. An introduction does not need to be long (and should not be), but it is an important part of an essay.
but mature writers use much more effective rhetorical strategies to begin their essays.) Introductions: A Few Tips. Introductions generally are not long, certainly not longer than body paragraphs.
All essays need an introduction, a way to inform the reader about the topic and show the writer's perspective on the subject. The way you choose to write your introduction will depend on the type of essay you are writing and the topic itself.
Knowing some of the options you have for introductions. The introduction should be designed to attract the reader's attention and give her an idea of the essay's focus. Begin with an attention grabber. The attention grabber you use is up to you, but here are some ideas: Startling information This information must be true and verifiable, and it doesn't.
Model IELTS advertising essay with extensive notes on essay structure and finding ideas for essays.