After the imposition of martial law by Ayub Khan, she once wished the regime well.
See Article History Alternative Title: Early years Jinnah was the eldest of seven children of Jinnahbhai Poonja, a prosperous merchant, and his wife, Mithibai. His family was a member of the Khoja caste, Hindus who had converted to Islam centuries earlier and who were followers of the Aga Khan.
On the advice of an English friend, his father decided to send him to England to acquire business experience. Jinnah, however, had made up his mind to become a barrister.
In keeping with the custom of the time, his parents arranged for an early marriage for him before he left for England. Inat the age of 19, he was called to the bar.
While in London Jinnah suffered two severe bereavements—the deaths of his wife and his mother. Nevertheless, he completed his formal studies and also made a study of the British political systemfrequently visiting the House of Commons.
He was greatly influenced by the liberalism of William E. Jinnah also took a keen interest in the affairs of India and in Indian students.
When the Parsi leader Dadabhai Naorojia leading Indian nationalist, ran for the British ParliamentJinnah and other Indian students worked day and night for him. Their efforts were crowned with success: Naoroji became the first Indian to sit in the House of Commons. He decided to start his legal practice in Bombay now Mumbaibut it took him years of work to establish himself as a lawyer.
It was nearly 10 years later that he turned actively toward politics. A man without hobbies, he divided his interest between law and politics. Nor was he a religious zealot: His interest in women was also limited, to Rattenbai Rutti —the daughter of Sir Dinshaw Petit, a Bombay Parsi millionaire—whom he married in over tremendous opposition from her parents and others.
The couple had one daughter, Dina, but the marriage proved an unhappy one, and Jinnah and Rutti soon separated.
It was his sister Fatima who gave him solace and company. Mahmud Husain The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Entry into politics Jinnah first entered politics by participating in the session of the Indian National Congress Congress Party held at Calcutta now Kolkatain which the party began to split between those calling for dominion status and those advocating independence for India.
Four years later he was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council—the beginning of a long and distinguished parliamentary career.
At that time, he still looked upon Muslim interests in the context of Indian nationalism. But, by the beginning of the 20th century, the conviction had been growing among the Muslims that their interests demanded the preservation of their separate identity rather than amalgamation in the Indian nation that would for all practical purposes be Hindu.
But Jinnah remained aloof from it. Only inwhen authoritatively assured that the league was as devoted as the Congress Party to the political emancipation of India, did Jinnah join the league. When the Indian Home Rule League was formed, he became its chief organizer in Bombay and was elected president of the Bombay branch.
It was largely through his efforts that the Congress Party and the Muslim League began to hold their annual sessions jointly, to facilitate mutual consultation and participation.
In the two organizations held their meetings in Bombay and in in Lucknowwhere the Lucknow Pact was concluded. There was a good deal of give and take, but the Muslims obtained one important concession in the shape of separate electorates, already conceded to them by the government in but hitherto resisted by Congress.
Meanwhile, a new force in Indian politics had appeared in the person of Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi. For a few years he kept himself aloof from the main political movements. He continued to be a firm believer in Hindu-Muslim unity and constitutional methods for the achievement of political ends.
After his withdrawal from Congress, he used the Muslim League platform for the propagation of his views. But during the s the Muslim League, and with it Jinnah, had been overshadowed by Congress and the religiously oriented Muslim Khilafat movement.
When the failure of the noncooperation movement and the emergence of Hindu revivalist movements led to antagonism and riots between Hindus and Muslims, the Muslim League began to lose strength and cohesion, and provincial Muslim leaders formed their own parties to serve their needs.Oct 31, · Rattanbai "Ruttie" Jinnah, (born as Rattanbai Petit) was the second wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnah—an important figure in the creation of Pakistan and the country's founder.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, also spelled Mohammad or Mahomed Ali Jinnah) (December 25, –September 11, ) was an Indian Muslim. After the partition of India, he became the Governor General of Pakistan.
The Political Career of Mohammad Ali Jinnah [William S. Metz, Roger D. Long] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Mohammad Ali Jinnah () is chiefly known as the founder of Pakistan, and as such is widely revered in Pakistan and reviled in India.
This book aims to present an impartial account of his career. Through initiativeblog.com Early life and career Fatima was born she returned to the forefront of political life when she ran for the presidency of Pakistan as a candidate for the Combined Opposition Party of Pakistan Both Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his sister Fatima Jinnah became firmly Sunni Muslims by the end of .
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in Karachi on December 25, His father Jinnah Poonja was an Ismaili Khoja of Kathiawar, a prosperous business community. Muhammad Ali received his early education at the Sindh Madrasa and later at initiativeblog.com › Home › Timeline › - In , Jinnah joined the Indian National Congress, which was the largest Indian political initiativeblog.com most of the Congress at the time, Jinnah did not favour outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, culture and industry as beneficial to India.