Effects of Acid Rain For the past few decades, acid rain has become one of many ecological concerns.
Distilled wateronce carbon dioxide is removed, has a neutral pH of 7. Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic, and those with a pH greater than 7 are alkaline.
A common example is nitric acid produced by electric discharge in the atmosphere such as lightning. History The corrosive effect of polluted, acidic city air on limestone and marble was noted in the 17th century by John Evelynwho remarked upon the poor condition of the Arundel marbles.
At first the main focus in research lay on local affects of acid rain.
Public awareness of acid rain in the U. S increased in the s after The New York Times published reports from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire of the myriad deleterious environmental effects shown to result from it.
These areas all burn sulphur-containing coal to generate heat and electricity. The use of tall smokestacks to reduce local pollution has contributed to the spread of acid rain by releasing gases into regional atmospheric circulation. An example of this effect is the low pH of rain which falls in Scandinavia.
Ina group of scientists including Gene Likens discovered the rain that was deposited at White Mountains of New Hampshire was acidic.
The pH of the sample was measured to be 4. Acid rain that mixed with stream water at Hubbard Brook was neutralized by the alumina from soils.
Experimental research was done to examine the effects of increased acidity in stream on ecological species. There was a decrease in species diversity, an increase in community dominants, and a decrease in the food web complexity.
Congress passed an Acid Deposition Act.
NAPAP looked at the entire problem from a scientific perspective. It enlarged a network of monitoring sites to determine how acidic the precipitation actually was, and to determine long-term trends, and established a network for dry deposition.
It looked at the effects of acid rain and funded research on the effects of acid precipitation on freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, historical buildings, monuments, and building materials.
It also funded extensive studies on atmospheric processes and potential control programs. From the start, policy advocates from all sides attempted to influence NAPAP activities to support their particular policy advocacy efforts, or to disparage those of their opponents.
Inthe panel of scientists came up with a draft report, which concluded that acid rain is a real problem and solutions should be sought. In Maythe House of Representatives voted against legislations that aimed to control sulphur emissions.
There was a debate about whether Nierenberg delayed to release the report. Subsequent Reports to Congress have documented chemical changes in soil and freshwater ecosystems, nitrogen saturation, decreases in amounts of nutrients in soil, episodic acidification, regional haze, and damage to historical monuments.
Meanwhile, inthe U. Congress passed a series of amendments to the Clean Air Act. Title IV called for a total reduction of about 10 million tons of SO2 emissions from power plants. It was implemented in two phases. Phase I began inand limited sulphur dioxide emissions from of the largest power plants to a combined total of 8.
Phase II began inand affects most of the power plants in the country. During the s, research continued. This rule provides states with a solution to the problem of power plant pollution that drifts from one state to another. Inby which time the cap and trade system had been augmented by the George W.
The first recorded example of the use of the term is fromdescribing how volunteers across the US collected rain samples to assist the Audubon Society in an acid-rain awareness raising campaign. The volunteers collected samples, checked for acidity, and reported back to the organization.
The information was then used to demonstrate the full extent of the phenomenon. Emissions of nitrogen oxides which are oxidized to form nitric acid are of increasing importance due to stricter controls on emissions of sulphur containing compounds.
Acid-producing gasses are also created by biological processes that occur on the land, in wetlandsand in the oceans.The effects of acid rain on crops and animals vallabhbhai in sanskrit patel on sardar essay For 10 days following the April 26 explosion, the ruptured Chernobyl reactor continued to release major quantities of radioactive substances, amounting to a total of.
The ecological effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in aquatic environments, such as streams, lakes, and marshes where it can be harmful to fish and other wildlife. That aluminum may be harmful to plants as well as animals.
Acid rain also removes minerals and nutrients from the soil that trees need to grow. the soil is thin and.
The causes of acid rain, how acid rain affects our environment and our health, and what regulatory actions have been put in place to reduce the pollutants that cause acid rain. Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure.
Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce .
The effects of acid rain, combined with other environmental stressors, leave trees and plants less able to withstand cold temperatures, insects, and disease.
The pollutants may also inhibit trees. Acid rain also has an effect on animals living in the forest.
The rain promotes changes in soil pH, making it harder for trees to soak up water. The effects of acid rain also make it harder for trees and other plants to withstand disease, insect damage and temperature changes.